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Freedom Rides

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Creator:Hatfield, Edward A.
Title:Freedom Rides
Date:2008 Apr. 11

Encyclopedia article about the Freedom Rides organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in the spring and summer of 1961. CORE sponsored a series of integrated bus rides throughout the South to test compliance with recent court rulings banning segregation in interstate travel. Subsequently known as the Freedom Rides, the protests garnered national support for civil reforms and forced the federal government's involvement in African Americans' struggle for freedom. Although Freedom Riders traveled unmolested through Georgia and were served courteously at several lunch counters throughout the state, they met with violent resistance elsewhere in the region, especially in Alabama. In the aftermath of Montgomery's violence, media attention increased, forcing the Kennedy administration to take a definitive position in defense of civil rights.

The administration announced on May 29, 1961, that it had instructed the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to ban segregation in all facilities under its jurisdiction. After months of delay, the ICC officially ruled segregation in interstate travel illegal on November 1, 1961.

The Civil Rights Digital Library received support from a National Leadership Grant for Libraries awarded to the University of Georgia by the Institute of Museum and Library Services for the aggregation and enhancement of partner metadata.

Subjects:Farmer, James, 1920- | Connor, Eugene, 1897-1973 | Bigelow, Albert, 1906- | Lewis, John, 1940 Feb. 21- | King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968 | Booker, Simeon, 1918- | Patterson, John, 1921 Sept. 27- | Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968 | Congress of Racial Equality | Civil rights--Southern States | African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States | Buses--Southern States | Bus terminals--Southern States | Bus lines--Southern States | Trailways | Greyhound Lines | Railroads--Southern States | Railroad stations--Southern States | Railroad travel--Southern States | African Americans--Travel--Southern States | Segregation in transportation--Southern States | Segregation--Southern States | Segregationists--Southern States | Compliance | Discrimination--Southern States | Race discrimination--Southern States | Race relations | Southern States--Race relations | Discrimination in restaurants--Southern States | Restaurants--Southern States | Interstate commerce--Southern States | Federal-state controversies--Southern States | Intervention (Federal government)--Southern States | Intimidation--Southern States | Mobs--Southern States | Riots--Southern States | Race riots--Southern States | Racism--Southern States | White supremacy movements--Southern States | Violence--Southern States | Social justice--Southern States | African Americans--Crimes against--Southern States | Offenses against the person--Southern States | Offenses against the person--South Carolina--Rock Hill | Offenses against the person--Alabama--Birmingham | Offenses against the person--Alabama--Montgomery | Southern States--Politics and government--20th century | Southern States--Social conditions--20th century | Southern States--History--20th century | Jails--Southern States | Imprisonment--Southern States | Arrest--Southern States | Police--Southern States | Police chiefs--Southern States | Direct action--Southern States | Nonviolence--Southern States | Ku Klux Klan (1915- ) | Assault and battery--South Carolina--Rock Hill | Assault and battery--Alabama--Birmingham | Assault and battery--Alabama--Montgomery | African Americans--Violence against | Civil rights workers--Violence against | Incendiary bombs--Alabama--Anniston | Bombings--Alabama--Anniston | United States. Interstate Commerce Commission | Civil rights demonstrations--Georgia--Albany | Demonstrations--Georgia--Albany | Government, Resistance to--Southern States | Freedom Rides, 1961 | Albany Movement (Albany, Ga.) | Southern States | Virginia | North Carolina | South Carolina | Georgia | Alabama | Mississippi | Tennessee | Rock Hill (S.C.) | York County (S.C.) | Nashville (Tenn.) | Davidson County (Tenn.) | Augusta (Ga.) | Richmond County (Ga.) | Atlanta (Ga.) | Fulton County (Ga.) | Birmingham (Ala.) | Jefferson County (Ala.) | Anniston (Ala.) | Calhoun County (Ala.) | Montgomery (Ala.) | Montgomery County (Ala.) | Jackson (Miss.) | Hinds County (Miss.) | Macon (Ga.) | Bibb County (Ga.) | Thomasville (Ga.) | Thomas County (Ga.) | Valdosta (Ga.) | Lowndes County (Ga.) | Albany (Ga.) | Dougherty County (Ga.)
Collection:New Georgia Encyclopedia
Institution:New Georgia Encyclopedia
Contributors:New Georgia Encyclopedia (Project) | Georgia Humanities Council | University of Georgia. Press | Merrill-Hall New Media | GALILEO (Georgia statewide project)
Online Publisher:4/11/2008
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