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|Date:||2008 July 24|
Encyclopedia article about the 1961 Freedom Rides, public bus trips undertaken by racially integrated groups through the Deep South to test the enforcement of a newly enacted court order prohibiting segregation in interstate bus terminals. The riders were met with hostility and violence in a number of states, but they encountered some of the worst violence in Alabama. Civil authorities at the state and local levels actively refrained from protecting the participants from violent mobs, forcing the federal government to intervene. The nonviolent protests played a key role in publicizing the hostility facing the civil rights movement.
The Civil Rights Digital Library received support from a National Leadership Grant for Libraries awarded to the University of Georgia by the Institute of Museum and Library Services for the aggregation and enhancement of partner metadata.
|Subjects:||Connor, Eugene, 1897-1973 | Lewis, John, 1940 Feb. 21- | King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968 | Patterson, John Malcolm, 1921- | Kennedy, Robert F., 1925-1968 | Shuttlesworth, Fred L., 1922-2011 | Mann, Floyd H., 1920-1996 | Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald), 1917-1963 | Abernathy, Ralph, 1926-1990 | Freedom Rides, 1961 | Government, Resistance to--Southern States | Congress of Racial Equality | Civil rights--Southern States | African Americans--Civil rights--Southern States | Buses--Southern States | Bus terminals--Southern States | Bus lines--Southern States | Trailways | Greyhound Lines | Railroads--Southern States | Railroad stations--Southern States | Railroad travel--Southern States | African Americans--Travel--Southern States | Segregation in transportation--Southern States | Segregation--Southern States | Segregationists--Southern States | Compliance | Discrimination--Southern States | Race discrimination--Southern States | Race relations | Southern States--Race relations | Discrimination in restaurants--Southern States | Restaurants--Southern States | Interstate commerce--Southern States | Federal-state controversies--Southern States | Intervention (Federal government)--Southern States | Intimidation--Southern States | Mobs--Southern States | Riots--Southern States | Race riots--Southern States | Racism--Southern States | White supremacy movements--Southern States | Violence--Southern States | Social justice--Southern States | African Americans--Crimes against--Southern States | Offenses against the person--Southern States | Offenses against the person--South Carolina--Rock Hill | Offenses against the person--Alabama--Birmingham | Offenses against the person--Alabama--Montgomery | Southern States--Politics and government--20th century | Southern States--Social conditions--20th century | Southern States--History--20th century | Jails--Southern States | Imprisonment--Southern States | Arrest--Southern States | Police--Southern States | Police chiefs--Southern States | Direct action--Southern States | Nonviolence--Southern States | Ku Klux Klan (1915- ) | Assault and battery--South Carolina--Rock Hill | Assault and battery--Alabama--Birmingham | Assault and battery--Alabama--Montgomery | African Americans--Violence against | Civil rights workers--Violence against | Incendiary bombs--Alabama--Anniston | Bombings--Alabama--Anniston | United States. Interstate Commerce Commission | Birmingham (Ala.) | Jefferson County (Ala.) | Montgomery (Ala.) | Montgomery County (Ala.) | Anniston (Ala.) | Calhoun County (Ala.) | Southern States | Alabama|
|Collection:||Encyclopedia of Alabama|
|Institution:||Encyclopedia of Alabama|
|Contributors:||Encyclopedia of Alabama (Project) | Alabama Humanities Foundation | Auburn University | Merrill-Hall New Media|
|Online Publisher:||[Auburn, Ala.] : Alabama Humanities Foundation and Auburn University | 2008-07-24|
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Forms part of the Encyclopedia of Alabama.
|Persistent Link to Item:||http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1605|